What Are NKRAs?

GTP 2.0 Raising Living Standards of Low Income Households

The goal of raising the living standards of the poor is a long-term aspiration, and though GTP 1.0 did much to lay the foundation for poverty eradication, much more needs to be done to help the poor and extreme poor out of their present states.

Moreover, the process of eradicating poverty is a learning process, and the LIH NKRA has had to adapt its delivery and initiatives based on the lessons learned from the first horizon of the GTP.

As a whole, the GTP 2.0 will emphasise the economic empowerment of individuals and communities through productive welfare, and this effort will require the establishment of basic facilities and the right environment. In order to achieve this objective, the LIH NKRA will work more closely with the various ministries and other relevant NKRA – i.e. the Rural Development, Urban Public Transport and Education NKRAs.

The LIH NKRA aspires to reduce poverty to 2% from 3.8% presently, and to ensure that every poor household registered with the Government gets an opportunity to empower themselves through the appropriate programme.


  • Expanding the e-Kasih Database

    Expanding the e-Kasih Database

    • An improved version of e-Kasih, the database managed by the ICU (Implementation Coordination Unit of the Prime Minister’s Department) maintaining records of Malaysia’s poor and vulnerable, called Greater e-Kasih will be implemented with broader data sources to accurately reflect the social and productive welfare support provided to each person.

    • Currently, ICU, government ministries, agencies and a selection of NGOs contribute to the e-Kasih database. Going forward, more NGOs and Civil Society Organization (CSOs) will be engaged to provide and update information on e-Kasih. To do so, the e-Kasih database will be simplified and training provided to help NGOs to upload information onto e-Kasih. ICU, through the district focus groups and State Development Offices, will filter and verify the information to avoid duplication and ensure consistency.

    • Furthermore, to ensure information is updated frequently, an email alert system will be put in place to remind relevant agencies and NGOs to update their information at least semi-annually.

  • Ensuring a More Granular and Targeted 1AZAM Programme

    Ensuring a More Granular and Targeted 1AZAM Programme

    • In the GTP 2.0, the 1AZAM programme targets will be more granular and state-specific to target under-served districts and place greater emphasis on urban areas.

    • The selection of 1AZAM participants will also be more stringent under the GTP 2.0, and selection priority will be given to participants who fall into one or more of the following categories:

      • Extreme poor and poor households registered with e-Kasih that have not received any assistance
      • Extreme poor and poor households that have not received any income-generating assistance
      • Participants from districts where there is a high number of poor and extreme poor households but without a corresponding number of 1AZAM participants
    • The LIH NKRA will also enhance its delivery process in Sabah and Sarawak. The delivery of the programme will take on a more holistic approach in the GTP 2.0 to take into account community requirements while providing economic assistance via 1AZAM.

    • The initiative in Sabah and Sarawak will also see greater engagement with non-governmental agencies and other organisations to deliver poverty eradication and reskilling programmes.

  • Introducing Innovative and Sustainable Opportunities

    Introducing Innovative and Sustainable Opportunities

    • A key part of the LIH NKRA’s delivery of its initiatives is to ensure that the latter are sustainable. This means that the initiatives will ideally help the recipient develop sufficient skills and employability that they would not need to participate in the 1AZAM programme in perpetuity.

    • The GTP 2.0 will introduce employment opportunities for 1AZAM participants to help break them out from the poverty cycle. Among these opportunities are:

      • Work voucher scheme: This scheme will be introduced as a pilot project in suburban areas and will involve local councils, district offices, fast food restaurants, and hypermarkets. This scheme is open to all, especially those receiving government assistance.

      • Department of Women’s Home Managers Programme: Participants will learn practical skills such as household management that will enable them to pursue careers as an au pair, governess or nanny. The 1AZAM programme will provide the financial assistance for training and development, while training companies will assist with job placements.

      • Branchless banking: This scheme will provide access to financial services and banking conveniences to under-served communities especially the poor/extreme poor in areas without banking facilities. Developed by Bank Simpanan Nasional (BSN), banking agents are appointed in the local community to provide services such as deposits, withdrawals, bill payments, cashless payments via a wireless GPRS.

      • Micro Sourcing (Subject to Pilot Project conducted by MDeC): This initiative comes under the AZAM Kerja programme and targets the urban poor. The initiative leverages the MDeC platform and its sourcing companies under the Business Services and Communications, Content & Infrastructure NKEA. The target is to recruit 1,000 participants in 2013, 1,500 participants in 2014 and 2,000 participants in 2015.

      • Agriculture support for Orang Asli communities: This initiative, under AZAM Tani, helps wean Orang Asli communities from relying on the Government for assistance. The pilot project for this initiative will take place in Grik, Hulu Perak, where the villagers will be encouraged to grow crops with a short maturity cycle. They will also be encouraged to develop a barter trading system.
    • In addition to poor and extreme poor households, the 1AZAM programme in the GTP 2.0 will target specific vulnerable groups and communities, namely ex-drug addicts, ex-prison convicts and communities such as the Orang Asli groups in Peninsular Malaysia and the Penan communities in Sarawak.

    • In the GTP 2.0, there is committed support for these vulnerable groups through the various 1AZAM programmes. For instance, over the next 3 years, 2,400 ex-drug addicts and 2,250 ex-prison convicts would receive 1AZAM support.

  • Enhancing the 1AZAM Programme

    Enhancing the 1AZAM Programme

    • One of the goals of the LIH NKRA in the GTP 2.0 is to build on the success of the 1AZAM programme implemented in the GTP 1.0 to engage and enrol civil society to help monitor the 1AZAM programme with greater regularity. A key tool is the AKRAB Programme, which is a mentor-mentee programme that employs successful 1AZAM participants to be mentors monitoring the projects of 1AZAM participants. The target is to recruit 4,000 volunteers by 2015 covering 40 of the most under-served districts.

    • In the GTP 2.0, clear criteria for ‘second chances’ will also be developed to ensure that 1AZAM participants with recommended assistance to ensure consistency across the different 1AZAM programmes. A committee in the appropriate ministries and agencies overseeing the 1AZAM programmes will be established to approve the requests.

  • Engaging NGOs and Other Community Organisations

    Engaging NGOs and Other Community Organisations

    • The LIH NKRA in the GTP 2.0 will see greater participation by NGOs, community organisations and corporations in order to make the poverty eradication more sustainable and more far-reaching. To better facilitate and encourage external participation, the GTP 2.0 will:

      • Expedite tax exemptions for NGOs: This initiative will expedite the tax exemption process for NGOs focused on fighting poverty and those that provide support in healthcare, shelter, education, and other services.

      • Establish awareness campaigns and NGO resource matching: In addition to financial constraints, many NGOs also face manpower constraints, i.e. they are unable to find sufficient volunteers or staff to run their projects and operations. This initiative aims to help NGOs publicise themselves better with the end-goal of finding appropriate corporate/individual donors.
  • Improving Nutrition Levels of LIH

    Improving Nutrition Levels of LIH

    • The GTP 2.0 looks to enhance the delivery of nutrition to vulnerable groups in a bid to address immediate-term issues related to poverty. In addition to the poor and hardcore poor in urban areas, specific ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli and Penan communities also suffer from structural poverty that restricts their access to adequate healthcare. Initiatives under this program are as follows:

      • Delivering the food baskets and feeding programme: This initiative addresses the high portion of household income that the urban poor spend on food. The food basket programme will leverage the MyKasih Foundation by adopting its cashless food aid programme to distribute the aid where needed. Recipients identified by ICU under e-Kasih system will receive a monthly contribution of RM80 stored in his or her MyKad to be used to purchase essential food items.

      • Delivering food baskets to the Orang Asli communities: The goal is to reduce malnutrition among children of the interior Orang Asli communities by 25% in 2015 through a rehabilitation programme. New and old initiatives through various agencies will be used to attain this goal.

      • Delivering food baskets and healthcare education to the Penan community: The LIH NKRA has set aside specific initiatives to help the Penan community, which are not limited to the delivery of food baskets. A key component of the programme will help raise the standard of healthcare education to the parents and guardians of Penan children to ensure they possess foundational information in this area.
  • Enhancing Delivery of Health Services and Housing in the Interior

    Enhancing Delivery of Health Services and Housing in the Interior

    • The GTP 2.0 will take on the poverty issues faced by LIH living in the interior areas on two fronts: enhancing healthcare and housing. Specific initiatives have been identified to address the specific challenges of gaining access to these communities.

      • Improving healthcare services: Orang Asli communities have poor access to health services, and as a result suffer from a number of health issues including higher morbidity and mortality for communicable diseases such as tuberculosis, malaria and filariasis.

        The infant mortality rate is also much higher than the national average. At present, mobile clinics visit the interior communities once a month, but the GTP 2.0 aims to increase the coverage to a wider area. The GTP 2.0 will also see greater leverage on other civil services and NGOs to help deliver aid to the interior where accessibility is a key issue.

        In the long-term, the LIH NKRA is proposing the construction of five static clinics: three in Gua Musang, Kelantan, and two in Kuala Lipis, Pahang. These static clinics will be built in 2014 and 2015.

      • Improving housing facilities: At present, only 12% of the Orang Asli population has been given help under the Hardcore Poor People Housing Project (PPRT) housing while the remaining 82% live in traditional or self-built houses that are in poor condition.

        In the GTP 2.0 the housing development programme for Orang Asli will be jointly undertaken by Program Bantuan Rumah (PBR) and Syarikat Perumahan Negara Bhd (SPNB) to provide more and better homes for their community.

        This initiative calls on the Housing Aid Programme (PBR) to re-design internal governmental processes to better communicate and collaborate with NGOs, government bodies and agencies, and to engage the former in housing development projects.
  • Enhancing Social Support to Enable Economic Development

    Enhancing Social Support to Enable Economic Development

    • TBreaking the poor and extreme poor from their cycle of poverty require more than just injecting direct aid, but building the appropriate social support structures to enable their own economic development. The LIH NKRA will implement the following initiatives in the GTP 2.0 to effect this transformation:

      • Enhancing the insurance scheme for 1AZAM participants: This initiative will ensure that all 1AZAM participants are covered under an income protection plan that serves as a safety net in the event of accidents. The insurance plan is designed to provide financial coverage when 1AZAM participants are unable to provide for their family due to accident and injuries.

      • Enhancing shelters for the homeless via Anjung Singgah: A carry-forward from the GTP 1.0, this initiative will continue through the GTP 2.0 and be further expanded to provide shelters in major cities such as Penang, Johor Bharu and Kuching. In Kuala Lumpur, Anjung Singgah has served more than 1,000 homeless people since its inception. Anjung Singgah, besides providing food and shelter, medical services, counseling and other social assistance, also helps its clients find jobs and provides them with the support to do so.

      • Home help for vulnerable groups: This initiative, which was a pilot project under the GTP 1.0, will be further expanded in the GTP 2.0. Its main objective is to provide support to individuals who are unable to adequately care for themselves at home. The target under this initiative is to provide home help services for 2,500 people/elderly. This initiative is implemented by NGOs and coordinated and monitored by Jabatan Kebajikan Masyarakat (JKM).

      • Ferry in Temenggor for Orang Asli community: The ferry service will provide Orang Asli living deep upstream with access to education, health and economic opportunities; thus improving their overall quality of life.

      • Expand education initiatives to improve Orang Asli well-being: The goal of this initiative is to strengthen the current training and skills programmes, including the syllabus of the KEDAP (Kelas Dewasa Asli dan PENAN) Programme which is overseen by the Ministry of Education (MOE). KEDAP will be revised to raise awareness among Orang Asli parents to help reduce the school dropout rate.

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